2014年大学英语四级阅读带翻译训练(13)

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Passage 13

Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitively areas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age.

People will be alert and receptive if they are faced with information that gets them to think about things they are interested in. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.

Many experts are so convinced of the benefits of challenging the brain that they are putting the theory to work in their own lives. “The idea is not necessarily to learn to memorize enormous amounts of information,” says James Fozard, associate director of the National Institute on Aging. “Most of us don’t need that kind of skill. Such specific training is of less interest than being able to maintainmental alertness. ” Fozard and others say they challenge their brains work.

Gene Cohen, acting director of the same institute, suggests that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups. Cohen says that we are frequently advised to keep physically active as we age, but older people need to keep mentally active as well. Those who do are more likely to maintain their intellectual abilities and to be generally happier and better adjusted. “The point is, you need to do both.” Cohen says, “Intellectual activity actually influences brain-cell health and size. ”

61. People who are cognitively healthy are those________

A) who can remember large amounts of information

B) who are highly intelligent C) whose minds are alert and receptive

D) who are good at recognizing different sounds

62. According to Fozard’s argument, people can make their brains work more efficiently by___

A) constantly doing memory work B) taking part in various mental activities

C) going through specific training D) making frequent adjustments

63. The findings of James and other scientists in their work_______

A) remain a theory to be further proved

B) have been challenged by many other experts

C) have been generally accepted

D) are practiced by the researchers themselves

64. Older people are generally advised to _______

A) keep fit by going in for physical activities

B) keep mentally active by challenging their brains

C) maintain mental alertness through specific training

D) maintain a balance between individual and group activities

65. What is the passage mainly about?

A) How biochemical changes occur in the human brain

B) Why people should keep active not only physically but also mentally

C) How intellectual activities influence brain-cell health

D) Why people should receive special mental training as they age.




Passage 13

研究学者已经得出观点,当人们精神上投入时,大脑中也会发生生人变化,使它在注意力和记忆力这样的认知领域动作效率更高。这一事实与年龄无关。(61)当人们面对可以联想到感兴趣事物的信息时,便会警觉起来,接受能力强。而习惯于多进行这种活动的人比那些从来没有积极主动思考的人在步入老年时明显更加健康。

许多专家确信,向大脑提出挑战是极有好处的,因此他们将这一理论应于自己身上。国立老化研究所的副主任(62)James Fozard说:“关键不是非得学会记忆大量的信息。我们大多数人并不需要那种技巧。这种特别的培训没有保持精神集中的能力更加有趣。”(63)Fozard与其他人都宣称他们用各种不同的精神技巧向自己的大脑提出挑战,不仅因为他们喜欢这样,还因为他们确信自己的活动领域有助于大脑工作的方式。

Gene Cohen是同一研究所的代理主任,他建议年纪较大的人参加脑力与体力活动时应使独自参与和集体行动兼而有之。Cohen说(64)我们通常得到的建议时在年纪增长时要保持身体上的活动,但老人也需要保持精神上的活力。这样做的人更有可能保持其智力水平,通常更加愉快,能更好地调节自己的生活。Cohen说,“关键是,你得双管齐下。智力行为的确对脑细胞的健康与大小有影响。”

61、明显健康的人是那些______________

A)可以记住大量信息的人       B)非常聪明的人

C)思维警觉,接受能力强的人     D)擅长分辨不同声音的人

62、根据Fozard的观点,人们通过_______可以让大脑更加高效的工作。

A)一直做记忆性的工作        B)参加各种脑力活动

C)进行特别的培训          D)经常进行调整

63、James与其他科学家在研究中的发现_________

A)还是有待证明的理论        B)受到许多其他专家的挑战

C)已广为人接受           D)被他们自己应用

64、老年人通常得到的建议是_________

A)坚持体能锻炼以保持身体健康

B)向他们大脑提出挑战,以保持精神上的活跃

C)通过特别的培训来保持精神警觉

D)在独自活动与集体活动之间保持平衡

65、本文的中心思想是什么?

A)人脑中的生化变化是如何发生的

B)为什么人应该保持身体与精神两方面的活跃

C)智力行为如何影响脑细胞的健康

D)为什么人应该在年龄增长时接受特别的精神培训


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